Both Cernavoda and its surroundings cover the ground, through the discovered rich artifacts, of the historical evolution’s phases from Neolithic, through the age of the metals, by the culture of the Geto- Dacians, then the one of the Romans, the beginning of the Feudalism, until present day.
Hamangia Neolithic culture
5000-2500 b.c.e. – Hamangia Neolithic culture is developed, on the current Romanian territory. Hamangia culture is connected with a nation which came from Anatoli, being the oldest Neolithic culture from Dobruja. The main creation of this culture is represented by the statuettes discovered at Cernavoda (The thinker and his consort), representing true masterpieces of the Neolithic sculpture.
3rd century b.c.e. - 1025
- 3rd century b.c.e. – At approx. 3 km south from the current Cernavoda bridge, on the right versant of the Danube, in direct line with Hinog island, is built the Axiopolis citadel, by the Thracian King Lysimachus. The name of the town derives from the ancient word.
- trac aksena = black, which, was therefore Hellenized and became Axio-polis. The citadel had a huge importance in that period, as well as in the periods in which it was rulled by the Geto-Dacians or the Romans.
- 2nd century b.c.e. – On Tabula Peutingeriana, the ancient map which points the most important roads from the Roman Empire, is mentioned also Axiopolis town.
- Year 280 – Starting from this year, Axiopolis citadel is part of the Roman province Scythia Minor, with the capital at Tomis and is attached to Thrace’s diocese.
- Year 304 – The martyrdom of the Saint Martyr from Axiopolis, Tasius or Tasios (Dasius), soldier in the Roman army. From the martyrdom of Thasius, we find out that in Axiopolis, were celebrated the Saturnalia on behalf of the God Saturn, God of time. Within these ceremonies, “a king of the Saturnalia was chosen”, who during 30 days was allowed to do whatever lawless deed he wanted. At the end of the 30 days, he was killed with the swords.
- Years 337-361 – Golden period of the Scythia Minor province, at Axiopolis came many priests who preached the Chrystianity, in Latin, to the local population. As proof, at Axiopolis, there were many people who talked Latin.
- Years 361-363 – During the Emperor Julian the Apostate, the citadels near the Danube are fortified, among which Axiopolis citadel. The roads from Scythia Minor province are also repaired.
- 10th century Dobruja is reintegrated to the Byzantine Empire. Under the pressure of the invasions of the Pechenegs, Oghuz Turks, Cumans and Tatars, several border citadels are repaired among which Axiopolis.
- 976- 1025 – Three earth walls are built between Constanta and Cernavoda. The third one, from stone, starts south from Axiopolis citadel until the sea’s coast.
Axiopolis is part of the self- standing political formation, Dobruja, rulled by Balica and Dobrotici.
At the episcopacy from Axiopolis, the bishop Cyril with the “good Christians” Quindus and Zenonis were martyred.
Mircea the Elder unites Dobruja with Wallachia
1388- 1389 Mircea the Elder unites Dobruja with Wallachia, after he defeats the Turks. He is sustained by the people from Dobruja and one of the battles takes place near Cernavoda.
Dobruja is definitely conquered by the Turks
1420 Dobruja is definitely conquered by the Turks. The places suffer a great transformance. The villages receive Turkish names and people, the cities are occupied by Muslim garnisons and administration. Instead of churches, big mosques are built.
Vlad, the Impaler, crosses the Danube
1461- Vlad, the Impaler, crosses the Danube and attacks almost all the citadels from the right margin of the river, among which Cernavoda, killing more than 20.000 Turks.
Michael the Brave makes an expedition across the Danube
1563- 1595 Michael the Brave makes an expedition across the Danube, conquering the citadels: Rasova, Cernavoda and Babadag.
1650-1660 Evliya Celebi (historian, geographer and one of the most known Turk travellers) mentions Rasova as a bourg and Cernavoda as a settlement “similar to a town”.
1738- 1740 Mikes Kelemer (political person and essayist, of Hungarian origin, born in Transylvania and surnamed Hungary’s Goethe), travels in Cernavoda region and certifies the existence of a strong Romanian population
The first and the oldest Romanian school from Dobruja
1766 Is built, in Cernavoda, the first and the oldest Romanian school from Dobruja, opened by the clerk John. On 5th of March, was brought to school a Romanian boy from Brasov, son of Mihai Croitorul, who learned there for more than 6 years. Nothing else about the faith of this school is known after 1772.
“National and political rights of the Romanians in Dobruja”
1770 In the “National and political rights of the Romanians in Dobruja” book, Nicolae Iorga mentions that “the bishop Neophyte from Cernavoda” translated in that year books from Greek to Romanian.
“The place from the river mouth”
XVIIIth century Cernavoda was known under the Turkish name of Bogazkoy, which means “The place from the river mouth”.
1777 The Lord of Wallachia- Alexander Ypsilantis makes donations to the Romanian churches from Babadag and Bogazkoy.
The Russians cross over the Danube
1828 The Russians cross over the Danube on a bridge, right in front of Cernavoda, to attack Silistra.
Cernavoda town is colonized by the Ottomans
1861- 1865 The area of Cernavoda town is colonized by the Ottomans with circassians, who came from Russia.
Alexandru Ioan Cuza
26th of May 1864 The Lord Alexandru Ioan Cuza travels on the course Cernavoda- Constanta, on the way to Istanbul. At Cernavoda, he is acclaimed, on the board of Sophia ship, by Sali- Pasha, brigadier general, who remained as attaché of the prince during all his way to Turkey. The lord spent his night on the board of the ship and on the second day he left with a special train.
The doctor Carol Davila, who was travelling together with the Lord Cuza, sends a letter to his wife, in which he talks about the poverty of the circassian fugitives at Cernavoda.
The big mosque of Cernavoda
1868 Memet Efendi builds the big mosque of Cernavoda. It is said that it was built with the stone from an old bridge over Carasu lake, possibly the Roman bridge. Apart from the big mosque, a Turkish school came into being with a graduated teacher and an in-house location.
1879 The Administration office of Cernavoda Harbor comes into being
Nicolae D. Chirescu is born
November 1880 Nicolae D. Chirescu is born at Cernavoda, mayor of city twice (Sept. 1907- Febr. 1911 and Jan. 1914- March 1919), deputy under Iorga’s government and the president of the Cultural League from Constanta.
„The Holy Great Sovereigns Constantine and Helen”
1882 The church „The Holy Great Sovereigns Constantine and Helen” from Cernavoda is built. It was dedicated in 1895 by the bishop D.D. Parthenius of the Lower Danube. The painting of the church bears the signature of the painter Vermont. During the First World War, the church was was fired on and then profaned.
September 1883 At Cernavoda, aboard the ship “Stefan cel Mare”, takes place the first meeting of the commission for the research and examination of the projects for the construction of the bridge across the Danube. For the construction of the bridge, the projects of 8 foreign companies were subscribed. None of them was approved.
The statuette of Ovidiu
September 1884 The statuette of Ovidiu, made by Ettore Ferrari, arrives, from Italy, on the marine way. For three years, the statuette stayed as guarantee at Cernavoda railway. “This new exile melted the heart of many ladies to organize a celebration afloat and a concert at the Casino in order to take out the poet from his wooden prison, because the ones in charge make always half of the work.” said the Farul Constantei newspaper.
16th of March 1889 Mihail Kogalniceanu requires in the Parliament for the big construction of Cernavoda bridge to be assigned to the Romanian engineer Anghel Saligny
The first soda waters factory from Dobruja
1890 The Cohn brothers build at Cernavoda the first soda waters factory from Dobruja.
The construction of Cernavoda bridge begins
9th of October 1890 The construction of Cernavoda bridge begins, the basic stone being put by the King Charles the Great. At the ceremony, the priest Dimitrie Chirescu dedicates the church.
The ceremony of the bridge across the Danube- Charles the Great
14th of September 1895 (15.00 hours) The groundbreaking ceremony of the bridge across the Danube- Charles the Great. According to the programme of the celebration, a train left at 9 a.m. from the Northern Railstation, the guests arriving to Cernavoda, at 12 o’clock. Within the formal ceremony with speeches and wishes on behalf of the assistance, the King Charles the Great put the last rivet of the bridge which was going to bear his name. The prime-minister of that period said a faimous sentence: “Your highness! With the country’s soldiers you won over the Bulgarian fields and with the country’s masters, you brought Danube on its knees.” , and in his turn, the sovereign exclaimed: ”The accomplishment of the Bridge over the Danube, wished by Me for a quarter of a century, is today a fulfilled act and this glorious creation heightens up, in front of us, in its greatness, as an obvious testimony of the Kingdom’s strength. The human genius, in which are embedded Romania’s progress and revolutionary elan, defeated all the difficulties, removed all the obstacles, in order to execute this durable and timeless work, which must show to the world that the Romanian nation is worthful of its beautiful mission at Danube’s rivermouths and at the Orient’s gates.”
On the 14th of September 1895, at only 5 years since the effective opening of the project site, on Cernavoda bridge, a pack train of 15 heavy railway engines passed through, with 80 km/h, all the platform’s length while, according to the media of that time, under the bridge, from a boat in which together with some workers, was the engineer and the builder- Anghel Saligny himself, whose name was not even said at the ceremony- who gave only by his simple presence, the assurance of the quality and resistence of this “work of art” which became legendary.
1896 It is built the hydrometeorology station from Cernavoda.
The diggings at Axiopolis
1898 The historian Grigore Tocilescu, known mainly for his researches made at the Monument from Adamclisi, begins the diggings at Axiopolis. Three quarters, fortified with walls are discovered: two in the north and one in the south.
8th of April 1898 Alexandrian Claudian (d. 1962), poet, sociologist and philosopher, is born at Cernavoda, in the same day with Emil Cioran (preceeding him with 13 years). He is the author of many volumes such as “Philosophic and sociological researches”; “The collectivism and Platon’s philosophy; “The anti-Semitism and its social causes: sociological graphic” and is considered as one of the greatest Romanian philosophers, being studied in all the profile faculties across the country.
The electrical lightning
1905 The electrical lightning is introduced in Cernavoda.
The town begins to supply itself with water from Hinog factory.
During the First World War
24th of October 1916 During the First World War, during Dobruja’s occupancy by the German- Turko- Bulgarian troops, a strong opposition takes place at Cernavoda. The defence made to the town by the Romanian troops of the 2nd division and the Danube’s monitors is one of the heroic moments of our national re-integration war. Even after the brave opposition, the Romanian army is obliged to draw off to Harsova and the town is occupied by the enemy’s troops. These ones are destroying the bridge upon Iezer lake and provoke huge damages to the inhabitants and to the factories from the city.
Carl Schuchardt şi R. Netzhammer
1916 Arrived in Dobruja with the German armies, the archaeologists Carl Schuchardt and R. Netzhammer undertake diggings in a Neolithic station from Cernavoda, discovering for the first time Cucuteni type painted ceramics in the Central Dubruja. C. Schuchardt, former director of the Museum of Prehistory from Berlin, publishes the work Cernavoda, eine Steinzeitsiedlung in the book Pahistoriche Zeitscrift (1924)
Romanian Socialist Party
1919 At Cernavoda, is formed one of the first groups of the Romanian Socialist Party. The organization had the social address in 11 Nicolae Balcescu street and as general secretary the lathe operator Nicolae Anghelache.
The heroes’ monument
1924 The heroes’ monument from the center of the town is built. On a pedestal is built another cylindric column, surrounded by a laurel wreath, ended in an ionic column head on which it is fixed an eagle with opened wings. The monument is made of white stone and mosaic and has the height of 7,35 m. On the main façade of the monument is written the following inscription: “The citizens of Cernavoda, for the eternal honour and exaltation of the dead heroes, for the integration of the Romanian nation. 1916-1918”. The builder of this monument is the sculptor from Cernavoda, of Italian origin, Pietro D’Elia. During the works to the Channel Danube- Black Sea from the ’50, the monument is gravely damaged but in 1974, through another civil initiative, it is rehabilitated by Antonio D’Elia, son of Pietro D’Elia. Now, there are also added on the monument the names of the heroes from Cernavoda who died in the Second World War.
For almost a century, “the eagle from the park”, as it is called in common language, was a true bind between times. Near it, both the ladies of the inter-war period and the young people of the 21st century took long walks, and at its basis take place, yearly, all the memorial celebrations of the Cernavoda people.
1928 Columbia refinery – Cernavoda is, in this period, one of the main refineries from the country, producing 10.000 of railcars/ year of different petroleum’s by-products.
The journal “Cernavoda- Body for Dobruja’s defence, on the Danubian river bank”
1928-1929 The journal “Cernavoda- Body for Dobruja’s defence, on the Danubian river bank”. It appears twice a month, under the lead of a committee, similar to the one from Dobrogea Juna, having a size of 64×48 and a price of 2 lei/month or 100lei/year. It presents, mainly, the proletarian activity from the town. Only 2 numbers are kept nowadays, from the 1st and the 15th of February 1929, at the Romanian Academy Library.
The first professional union from Cernavoda
8th of March 1930 Is formed, by decree, „Unirea” – the first professional union from Cernavoda. The first committee of „Unirea”: Ion Comsa – president; Ion Ganea – secretary and Simion Draghici – cashier
The first football game from Cernavoda
30th of August 1930 Takes place the first football game from Cernavoda: Mercur Cernavoda- Medgidia 6-0.
The disarmament of the German troops
23rd -30th of August 1944- The officers from Cernavoda’s Administration office, together with the 2nd Rangers’ Regiment, participate to the disarmament of the German troops and their ships’ landing in Hinog, Seimeni and Rasova regions.
27th of August 1944
27th of August 1944 Between 18-22 hours, 7 groups of 5-6 German ships each, which were coming from Harsova, fired on Cernavoda. The attack was declined with huge losses for the German side. During the same day, it is received from the airway surveillance, the information that a big German convoy, with horse-drawn carts and autovehicles, drives to Cernavoda. The convoy will be disarmed and a hunting group of the river forces’ commandment captures 14 tugboats, 2 motor boats, 60 flat boats and disarms them. At Cernavoda, were made prisoners 10.500 German soldiers, a general, 400 high officers, river boats, heavy weaponry and motor vehicles. On duty, 13 soldiers died and 180 were wounded.
The 13 Russian tank body enters in Cernavoda
30th of August 1944 The 13 Russian tank body enters in Cernavoda. The elders tell that the Russian have done atrocities against the civil population because their families were murdered by the Romanian soldiers.
Change the name of the bridge upon the Danube
15th of October 1948 The communist authorities decide to change the name of the bridge upon the Danube from “Charles the Great” to „Anghel Saigny”. The workers put in charge with the change of the name from the bridge’s firmament have difficulties due to the materials used by the engineer. The royal bronze symbols are also drawn out, as well as the imposing lions.
One of the darkest periods from the town’s history
1950- 1953 One of the darkest periods from the town’s history. After the forced expropriations of the communist regime, the lower side of the town is completely demolished together with its most important buildings: the Rangers’ garrison, the factory “9 Mai”, the railway station- Cernavoda –Town, Cernavoda Court, Bristol hotel, „Vasile Roaita” and „Avantul” mills, the woods and cereals deposits, the town’s market, the sports ground and more than 136 of private houses.
Danube- Black Sea Channel
1974 The works for the construction of the Danube- Black Sea Channel are restarted.
1979 It begins the execution of the counter works for the Anghel Saligny Bridges Assembly with a new bridge which has apart from a railway a highroad.
The building project of the Nuclear Plant from Cernavoda
9th of May 1978 The building project of the Nuclear Plant from Cernavoda is analysed and approved.
Cernavoda nuclear power plant
January 1979 The RENEL subsidiary -“Cernavoda nuclear power plant”- and the Contruction Company of Nuclear- Power Plants, the first and the only construction firm from the country with this specific comes into existence.
Nuclear- Assembly Building Site
1980 It is built the Nuclear- Assembly Building Site for the mechanical assembly of the equipments and pipes systems at the first Romanian nuclear plant.
The new railway and roadway bridges
16th of December 1982 The new railway and roadway bridges upon the Danube and Borcea horn are finished.
The Danube- Black Sea Channel is inaugurated
26th of May 1984 The Danube- Black Sea Channel is inaugurated in a big way. The first convoy of motor barges, having to the fore a ship on which was present the President Nicolae Ceausescu, passes through the flood gate of Agigea. The construction lasted 8 years and more than 300.000 people participated to it.
21st of June 1991
21st of June 1991 It is approved the emergency plan for the improvement of the accommodation, social and life conditions in Cernavoda town.
The trophy “Europe’s Bow”
1992 The nuclear plant receives in Spain the trophy “Europe’s Bow” for the quality of the no.1 reactor’s envelope. For the same achievement, the nuclear will receive in 1994 the ARACO award.
The Highschool with Nuclear Energetics profile
30th of March 1993 The Highschool with Nuclear Energetics profile cames into being.
Cernavoda’s new hospital
September 1994 In the northern part of the town, on a base taken from the pomiculture reservation, the works to Cernavoda’s new hospital begin. The hospital is going to be, actually, a sanitary compound consisting of a hospital with 100 beds, polyclinic, treating station, inherent heating station, oxygen plant and rescuing station.
The first reactor at Cernavoda’s Nuclear Plant
December 1996- Begins the exploitation of the first reactor at Cernavoda’s Nuclear Plant.
The new sanitary compound of Cernavoda town
2002 The new sanitary compound of Cernavoda town is completely finished. The compound is one of the most modern from the country, being conceived to undertake the victims of a possible nuclear accident. The opening was made in the presence of Romania’s President, on that date, Ion Iliescu.
Saint Mary Bridge
15th of August 2002 It was inaugurated the Saint Mary Bridge, which connects the town to the railway station Cernavoda Bridge, A3 Highway, N.R. 22. The opening took place in the presence of Adrian Nastase, Prime-Minister in that period, and of Gheorghe Hansa, mayor of Cernavoda town. The works began in August 1995, on two building sites: one for the infrastructure and one for the platforms. This was built in Romania and weights 1.500 tons. Most of the works were made in a mechanical manner, therefore only 100 persons worked, effectively, to the construction. The bridge has a length of 550 m and is built with Nielsen type continuous beam. In the world, there are only 2 more bridges built with this kind of beam- one in the U.S.A. and one in Norway. The used groundworks were imported from U.K., because a strong protection was needed, any rust spot could have led to irretrievable cracks. The work, which cost 20 milliards lei, is unique in Europe as construction method.
3rd of June 2006
3rd of June 2006 The first museum of the town comes into existence
The second reactor of Cernavoda Nuclear Plant
September 2007 The second reactor of Cernavoda Nuclear Plant is operated.
Cernavoda town makes a twinning with the Slovene town Krsko
July 2008 Cernavoda town makes a twinning with the Slovene town -Krsko. The conclusion of the agreement was made on the platform of the Scholar Campus from the town, where more than 200 persons participated to, foreign guests and citizens from Cernavoda. The agreement regarded the establishment and enhancement of the collaboration relationships between the two towns. The cooperation will consist of information and experience exchanges in the following domains: public administration, education, youth, sports and culture, trade and industry and others. According to the twinning signed agreement, the parties will organize, yearly, meetings or inspections for the balance of the fulfilled actions and the elaboration of other perspective projects.